Product Pathways - TGF-beta/Smad Signaling
Smad2/3 (D7G7) XP® Rabbit mAb #8685
|8685S||100 µl (10 western blots)||---||In Stock||---|
|8685P||40 µl (4 western blots)||---||In Stock||---|
|8685||carrier free and custom formulation / quantity||email request|
|W||1:1000||Human, Mouse, Rat, Monkey||Endogenous||52, 60||Rabbit IgG|
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot.
Applications Key: W=Western Blotting, IP=Immunoprecipitation, IF-IC=Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), F=Flow Cytometry, ChIP=Chromatin IP
Specificity / Sensitivity
Smad2/3 (D7G7) XP® Rabbit mAb recognizes endogenous levels of total Smad2/3 protein.
Source / Purification
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding His198 of human Smad2/3 protein.
Western blot analysis of extracts from HeLa and ACHN cells using Smad2/3 (D7G7) XP® Rabbit mAb.
Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of HeLa cells, serum starved (left), treated with hTGF-β3 #8425 (100 ng/ml, 30 min, center), or treated with hTGF-β3 and SB43152 (10 ug/mL, 1 hr, right), using Smad2/3 (D7G7) XP® Rabbit mAb (green). Actin filaments were labeled with DY-554 phalloidin (red).
Flow cytometric analysis of HeLa cells using Smad2/3 (D7G7) XP® Rabbit mAb (blue) compared to Rabbit (DA1E) mAb IgG XP® Isotype Control #3900 (red).
Chromatin immunoprecipitations were performed with cross-linked chromatin from 4 x 106 HaCaT cells treated with hTGF-β3 #8425 (7 ng/ml, 1 hr) and either 10 μl of Smad2/3 (D7G7) XP® Rabbit mAb or 2 μl of Normal Rabbit IgG #2729 using SimpleChIP® Enzymatic Chromatin IP Kit (Magnetic Beads) #9003. The enriched DNA was quantified by real-time PCR using SimpleChIP® Human CDKN1A Intron 1 Primers #4669, SimpleChIP® Human ID1 Promoter Primers #5139, and SimpleChIP® Human α Satellite Repeat Primers #4486. The amount of immunoprecipitated DNA in each sample is represented as signal relative to the total amount of input chromatin, which is equivalent to one.
Members of the Smad family of signal transduction molecules are components of a critical intracellular pathway that transmit TGF-β signals from the cell surface into the nucleus. Three distinct classes of Smads have been defined: the receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads), which include Smad1, 2, 3, 5, and 8; the common-mediator Smad (co-Smad), Smad4; and the antagonistic or inhibitory Smads (I-Smads), Smad6 and 7 (1-5). Activated type I receptors associate with specific R-Smads and phosphorylate them on a conserved carboxy terminal SSXS motif. The phosphorylated R-Smad dissociates from the receptor and forms a heteromeric complex with the co-Smad (Smad4), allowing translocation of the complex to the nucleus. Once in the nucleus, Smads can target a variety of DNA binding proteins to regulate transcriptional responses (6-8).
- Heldin, C.H. et al. (1997) Nature 390, 465-71.
- Attisano, L. and Wrana, J.L. (1998) Curr Opin Cell Biol 10, 188-94.
- Derynck, R. et al. (1998) Cell 95, 737-40.
- Massagué, J. (1998) Annu Rev Biochem 67, 753-91.
- Whitman, M. (1998) Genes Dev 12, 2445-62.
- Wu, G. et al. (2000) Science 287, 92-7.
- Attisano, L. and Wrana, J.L. (2002) Science 296, 1646-7.
- Moustakas, A. et al. (2001) J Cell Sci 114, 4359-69.
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This product is intended for research purposes only. The product is not intended to be used for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes in humans or animals.
XP® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
Cell Signaling Technology® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.