Product Pathways - PI3K / Akt Signaling
Phospho-FoxO4 (Ser193) Antibody #9471
|9471S||100 µl (10 western blots)||---||In Stock||---|
|9471||carrier free and custom formulation / quantity||email request|
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot.
Applications Key: W=Western Blotting
Specificity / Sensitivity
Phospho-Fox04 (Ser193) Antibody detects endogenous levels of Fox04 only when phosphorylated at serine 193. The antibody may detect phospho-Fox01 at 82 kDa.
Source / Purification
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic phosphopeptide corresponding to residues surrounding Ser256 of human Fox01. Antibodies are purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.
The Forkhead family of transcription factors is involved in tumorigenesis of rhabdomyosarcoma and acute leukemias (1-3). Within the family, three members (FoxO1, FoxO4, and FoxO3a) have sequence similarity to the nematode orthologue DAF-16, which mediates signaling via a pathway involving IGFR1, PI3K, and Akt (4-6). Active forkhead members act as tumor suppressors by promoting cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Increased expression of any FoxO member results in the activation of the cell cycle inhibitor p27 Kip1. Forkhead transcription factors also play a part in TGF-β-mediated upregulation of p21 Cip1, a process negatively regulated through PI3K (7). Increased proliferation results when forkhead transcription factors are inactivated through phosphorylation by Akt at Thr24, Ser256, and Ser319, which results in nuclear export and inhibition of transcription factor activity (8). Forkhead transcription factors can also be inhibited by the deacetylase sirtuin (SirT1) (9).
- Anderson, M.J. et al. (1998) Genomics 47, 187-99.
- Galili, N. et al. (1993) Nat Genet 5, 230-5.
- Borkhardt, A. et al. (1997) Oncogene 14, 195-202.
- Nakae, J. et al. (1999) J Biol Chem 274, 15982-5.
- Rena, G. et al. (1999) J Biol Chem 274, 17179-83.
- Guo, S. et al. (1999) J Biol Chem 274, 17184-92.
- Seoane, J. et al. (2004) Cell 117, 211-23.
- Arden, K.C. (2004) Mol Cell 14, 416-8.
- Yang, Y. et al. (2005) EMBO J 24, 1021-32.
- Medema, R. H. et al. (2000) Nature 404, 782-787. Applications: Western Blotting.
- Eke, I. et al. (2010) J Clin Invest 120, 2516-27. Applications: Western Blotting.
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This product is intended for research purposes only. The product is not intended to be used for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes in humans or animals.
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